Holidays and Holy Days

Christmas is just a few weeks off. Most churches have Christmas trees up by now, and many ministers started their Advent sermon series this past weekend. Christmas–like Easter and the other holy days of the Christian calendar–has been so widely embraced by protestant churches, that not to incorporate them into the church worship schedule seems either strange or downright block headed.

I am one of those pastors who still believes the church should not include these holidays in the worship calendar. But I also don’t want to maintain that distinction in stubbornness or merely out of fondness for “old style presbyterianism.” So, I thought I’d take a couple of paragraphs–speaking for myself at least–to explain why I still believe this is a matter of biblical conviction.

First of all, there is one religious calendar that goes all the way back to the creation: the weekly religious calendar. God appointed the sabbath day as a religious day to be observed weekly. The Ten Commandments reaffirm that this weekly day of worship sets the cadence of life for God’s people. The New Testament also continues to call us to weekly sabbath (or, Lord’s Day) worship (more on this, later). The weekly religious calendar is biblical, and continues in force.

The annual religious calendar is also biblical in its origin. The annual calendar was not instituted at creation, but it was added with the Levitical Laws at Sinai. There were seven holy days originally instituted in Israel’s yearly calendar (Lev. 23). Three of those festivals involved mandatory pilgrimages to the Temple: Passover, Pentecost, and Booths (Deut. 16).

All of these holy days–the weekly sabbath and the annual festivals–were anticipatory celebrations. Even though they each looked back to a day that demonstrated something about the saving work of God, they also looked forward to the fulfillment of that great work. The sabbath looked back to God’s rest after creation; it also looks forward to creation’s rest after consummation. The Passover looked back to the lambs slaughtered so that Israel could escape Egypt; it also looked forward to the Lamb of God who would, once and for all, truly deliver God’s people from the bondage of sin. The nature of holy days in Scripture is consistently to look back upon an event that demonstrated something about God’s saving work, in order to look forward to the fulfillment of the promise demonstrated.

What do we do with the festivals, then, when their fulfillment has come in Christ? The way I have laid out my case in the above paragraphs should make it obvious what I believe the answer should be. But let me try to be fair in how I explain both the answer I represent (i.e., the festivals are over) and that of another perspective (i.e., that the Levitical festivals continue, and what this has to do with Christmas).

The Gospel according to John is an important text in this discussion, because John wrote his story of Jesus following the outlines of the Levitical festival calendar. John gives frequent references to the various Temple festivals, and he shows Jesus fulfilling the promises symbolized in those festivals and their rituals. Many commentators unpack these connections; I won’t spend time doing so here. But there are two ways in which Christians have responded to those connections identified by John in his Gospel.

Some (including historic Reformed Churches) see those connections as indication that the Old Covenant festivals are fulfilled in Christ and are expired. They were festivals pointing ahead, and Jesus has fulfilled what they promised. The weekly sabbath is the only Old Testament religious day that continues to be observed in the New Testament church. John (like other Gospel writers) shows Jesus teaching his apostles to gather to worship and hear from him on a new weekly sabbath: the first day of the week (Jn. 20:1, 19-23, 26-29). The sabbath remains, thought it now looks back to Jesus’ resurrection on the first day of the week, and it points us forward to the fulfillment of what his resurrection demonstrates is coming (Rom. 6:8; Heb. 4:9). But all of the annual Levitical festivals are expired and are no longer to be observed (Heb. 8:13; cf., most of Paul’s epistles!)

However, to give the other side of the argument: some Christians (including the Roman Catholic tradition) look at John’s connections between the Levitical festivals and Christ as warrant to adapt and continue the Levitical festivals–especially the three great pilgrimage festivals. The observation of Passover under the Old Covenant was adapted and continued as Christian Easter. The Feast of Pentecost and the giving of the Law under the Old Covenant was re-cast and continued as a New Covenant Pentecost, celebrating the giving of the Spirit. Booths was transformed in the Christian calendar into the Feast of Epiphany celebrating the manifestation of Christ in the world.

Athanasius of Alexandria represents this express recycling and continuance of the Levitical Law. He wrote, “A bishop … shall gather [the people] together at the great festival of the Lord [i.e., Easter]… And at the feast of Pentecost he shall refresh all the people, because on that day the Holy Ghost came down upon the church. And at the feast of the Lord’s Epiphany… [Thus the people] shall celebrate with thee these three seasons, each year: the Paschal feast [Passover] … and a feast at the end of the fifty days [Pentecost] and the new-year’s feast, which is (that of) the gathering in of the harvest and the fruits [Booths].” (Riedel and Crum, Canons of Athanasius, p. 27.)

Athanasius explains plainly what many Christians today have not realized about the Christian calendar. It is an adapted continuation of the Old Testament Levitical calendar.

Anyone who knows me knows that the Old Testament Law is one of my favorite topics of study. (In fact, while preaching through Leviticus, I recently preached on the Old Testament festival calendar, here, here, and here.) I love the Old Testament Law–including the Levitical Laws–because they elegantly express the profound promises accomplished by Christ. But I do not believe the church should re-implement the Levitical Laws, even after redressing them in New Testament language.

It seems an unfortunate irony to me that the church, today, places so much emphasis on the days of the “Christian calendar,” while our care to guard the holiness of the sabbath declines–the one holy day Scripture does call us to continue!

So, my pastorate might be out of step with much of the Christian world–even much of the Reformed world–when it comes to Christian “holy days.” But I hope this brief explanation shows that this position is not taken out of stodgy traditionalism. It is a conviction embraced in loving reverence for Christ who has removed the Levitical Laws, and he has denied the church any authority to adapt and reimpose them.

I recognize that is a strong statement. I believe this is a point of conviction, so it warrants strong expression. But strength of conviction does not necessarily require (or justify) harshness of application. Let me add two points about walking out this conviction.

First of all, many of those churches who do observe the Advent season do so out of their love for Christ. I respect that, and Scripture commands me to honor that. When Paul, in his day, dealt with this very controversy whether to continue observing the Levitical holy days, he wrote, “The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord … the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord…” (Rom. 14:6). In the broader context of that verse, Paul makes it clear he is not approving an “anything goes” attitude. There is a right answer to the controversy Paul was addressing, and he is not shy about giving the right answer. Nevertheless, Paul also calls us to appreciate the different levels of growth in the church over such doctrinal issues. Where Christians observe old, Levitical practices they ought not, but they do so motivated by love for Christ, Paul teaches us to frame our disagreement with them in brotherly grace. In fact, I would even go so far as to say, if this doctrine becomes a hammer to condemn other Christians (in Paul’s words, to “pass judgment” and “despise” a brother; Rom. 14:10), an even worse sin is being committed (Eph. 4:15; 1 Jn. 4:20). So, Christmas non-observance is a position to be held with all the weight of a biblical conviction, but that does not justify a harsh spirit in how the disagreement is discussed–by either side.

Secondly with regard to walking out this conviction: after reading all this you might be surprised to know that my family does put a Christmas tree in our living room each December. Everything I have argued above has to do with religious festivals and worship services. Church holidays are instituted by Christ and by no one else. Civic holidays, however, are different–and I recognize that difference. Civic holidays are not ritual presentations of an anticipated promise, as religious holidays are. When Jesus calls us to worship on the sabbath, he does so to hold out before us the anticipation of the coming, eternal sabbath. That is the nature of religious holy days and their observance with gathered worship. There is a future resurrection hope; the incarnation, however, is a completed event.

Civic holidays are different, though. Civic holidays are simply days to remember something important that happened a long time ago. Martin Luther King, Jr., had an important impact on our country, so America has a holiday to remember him. July 4th was also an important day that America remembers every year. If America also adopts a civic holiday to remember Christ’s birth, in principle there is nothing wrong (and much that is good) about that. And the church can (in my view) commend the state for recognizing the importance of Christ in this way. Admittedly, the fact that the civic observance of Christ’s birth began as a Roman Catholic festival makes its continued observance as a secular holiday complicated. I recognize a case could be made to discontinue even civic observance of the day. But I want to make clear, that is not the point of this post.

Whether Christians should gather in their living rooms on December 25th, read Luke 2, and give gifts to one another, is (in my estimation) a matter of Christian liberty of conscience. Some will be persuaded against the practice; some (like myself) will welcome the opportunity to end the year with family giving. Family participation in civic observances of July 4th, Easter, Labor Day, Christmas, and other holidays adopted by secular society is a matter of private conscience.

But when it comes to the worship services of the church, there is only one festival day Christ has continued from the Old Testament into the New (as described, e.g., in Lk. 24). Therefore, my earnest desire as a minister is to promote weekly observance of the sabbath in joyous expectation of heaven.


  1. Pete Smith December 3, 2012 at 10:55 am #

    Merry Christimas, Michael. Really excellent article. Thank you. At some point I’d be interested in your perspective on Purim and the Feast of Dedication which were not Levitical. It seems that Jesus observed the Feast of Dedication which has no biblical warrant but comes from the intertestamental period. Thanks again for a well written article which is full of clear teaching steeped in charity.

  2. Bob Hemphill December 3, 2012 at 11:11 am #

    A thoughtful article, Michael. Thanks.

  3. bobhemp December 3, 2012 at 11:13 am #

    A thoughtful article; Thanks, Michael.

  4. Larry Wilson December 3, 2012 at 1:09 pm #

    Excellent article, Michael. Thanks.

  5. David John Webber December 3, 2012 at 7:21 pm #

    Right on, Michael. Appreciate your insight.

  6. Phil Pockras December 3, 2012 at 8:53 pm #

    You’ve done well in this, Michael. May Jesus bless it to many of His people. I hope it gets a wide distribution.

  7. James December 3, 2012 at 8:59 pm #

    Michael, thanks for the article. I was wondering if you have done any writing or teaching in defense of the Sabbath.

  8. Deb Whited December 4, 2012 at 10:07 am #

    I so appreciate this post!

    As a protestant Christian I have had more and more personal objection to the celebration of Christmas – and to the name Easter, although I certainly celebrate the resurrection of Jesus! It was my understanding that the liturgical calendar was developed to assist in teaching the illiterate church the basics of the Bible in a 1-year form. Laudible as that may be it seems to have been taken to lengths far beyond that and lost much of the original intention.

    I disagree with you somewhat though, in that I do not believe that all of the Levitical feasts are fulfilled ….yet. The first four certainly have been with the first coming of Jesus, but the last 3 -Trumpets, Atonement and Tabernacles – many believe point the way and will be fulfilled at His second coming. Those of us who share that significance, and point out the rich teaching that can be received by hearing all the feasts explained or even celebrating them “in their seasons, ” (Lev 23:4) may be thought of with alarm as ‘Judaizers,’ which is not true. There, your reminder of Rom. 14:6 is a comfort to us all.

  9. houseguard December 4, 2012 at 12:04 pm #

    Thank you, Michael.

  10. alcoramdeo December 4, 2012 at 4:04 pm #

    Probably the best treatment of this topic I have read, for which I thank our Lord and you, Brother.

  11. Irene Huizing December 4, 2012 at 11:00 pm #

    Thank you. I appreciate the spirit in which the article is presented and the reasoning behind your views are well received here.

  12. David Silversides December 5, 2012 at 8:01 am #

    Hello Michael,
    Thanks for this – someone sent me the link. Thought it might be useful to mention the closing section of the Westminster Directory for Public Worship in connection with the distinction between days set apart in response to providential events (prayer & fasting on the one hand or thanksgiving on the other) and commemoration of the unchanging facts of redemption accomplished on the other. For the latter, the Lord has given us two commemorative ordinances, the Lord’s Supper and the Lord’s Day to which we should not add our ordinances of our own, whether commemorative actions or special days of commemoration.. This is relevant to the question of Purim etc.

    The Directory states, “There is no day commanded in Scripture to be kept holy under the gospel but the Lord’s Day, which is the Christian Sabbath. Nevertheless, it is lawful and necessary, upon special emergent occasions, to seperate a day or days for publick fasting or thanksgiving, as the several eminent and extraordinary dispensations of God’s providence shall administer cause and opportunity to his people”. Christian greetings, David.

  13. Stephanie Carlson December 5, 2012 at 11:50 am #

    Wonderfully written and helpful while also encouraging. Thank you Mr. LeFebvre, I am not a scholar nor a theologian however what I really appreciated in this blog was the fact that it was easy to understand while still full of theological arguements and information.

  14. Rut Etheridge III December 8, 2012 at 6:10 pm #

    Loved this article, brother! The thought-provoking content and the commensurately kind manner of expression were so encouraging. I noticed it wasn’t on the “banner” at the top of the site…or perhaps I missed it. If it’s not up there, I’d sugggest adding it! Thanks, Michael.

  15. American Covenanter December 8, 2012 at 7:32 pm #

    It is encouraging to see the RPCNA dealing with the issue of holy-days. May all Presbyterian groups who calm to be conservative embrace and promote Scripture and the Westminster Standards.

    “The General Assembly taking to their consideration the manifold abuses, profanity, and superstitions, committed on Yule-day [Christ-mass] and some other superstitious days following, have unanimously concluded and hereby ordains, that whatsoever person or persons hereafter shall be found guilty in keeping of the foresaid superstitious days, shall be proceeded against by Kirk censures, and shall make their public repentance therefore in the face of the congregation where the offence is committed. And that the presbyteries and provincial synods take particular notice how ministers try and censure delinquents of this kind, within the several parishes.” — General Assembly, Church of Scotland, Act for Censuring Observers of Yule-day, and other Superstitious days (1645).

  16. Benjamin P. Glaser December 8, 2012 at 7:34 pm #

    Amen and thank-you for this wonderful article. It can get pretty lonely being the only Christian congregation around that does not celebrate advent, “Christmas”, or any other man-made days and it is nice to know that those of us that hold to the Confessional and Biblical position on these things do not do so alone.

  17. Jonathan Manring December 10, 2012 at 6:02 am #

    Thank you for a gracious post. I appreciate the recognition that the church aught not to add anything to the public worship of God without express Scriptural warrant (as per the Regulative Principle of Worship). But I would add, aught not the church to be equally careful about adding things to the private worship of God? The Passover, for example, was not only a public, corporate act of worship, but a private, family one as well (i.e., it was celebrated at home, with one’s family), and yet, it would not have been right for the Israelites to change the way they worshipped in this feast as families. Would it not seem that the RPW applies to family and private worship as well as public worship?

    Secondly, I think the issue you noted about christmas beginning as a Roman Catholic tradition (and actually as a syncretistic semi-pagan holy day) is a serious one. God condemns syncretism as equally (and quite strongly) as he does other forms of false worship. This sermon is a good one that speaks to that issue for anyone interested. I recommend it.

  18. David Gerry Hallowell December 20, 2012 at 4:12 am #

    Please excuse me for my previous comment. I didn’t realize what a serious article was being addressed… was but responding to a shallow preacher-like word play comment I saw on a timeline. So where did Paul say this? Must have been a Targum I missed. I believe the Jewish festivals except for Yom Kippur which will be fulfilled at our Lord’s second coming were fulfilled in Yeshua HaMeshiach,..that his first advent was appropriately on Rosh Hoshannah or Succot by some calculations, and that we are at risk continuing to call Pesach after a pagan fertility goddess once we know the truth. :Let not many of you become teachers as they shall receive stricter judgment. I believe our Lord expects us to walk in the light of what has been revealed to us and be lights in the growing darkness of cultural paganism. Syncretism in our celebrations is not useful as it makes syncretistic believers who cave in to situation ethics. Christmas is a Christian mask put on a pagan equinox festival. So let us put Christ back in….the holidays he was sent to fulfill. The adaptations of the Levitical and other Jewish feasts were inaccurately made by fallible popes and often unlearned bishops who were intent on separating Christianity from Judah and tying it more closely to their countries gods and goddesses so as to make it more palatable to the pagans they were sprinkling and declaring to be Christians wholesale so they could keep their positions in society.Time for another reformation i say.

  19. Joe December 23, 2012 at 8:43 pm #

    Such days as Christmas and Easter are not to be observed in public worship (as the writer points out) but also such customs are to be privately abstained from as well. Where does the RPCNA state the civic observances of Christmas and Easter is a matter of private conscience? Their rulings urge us ‘to abstain from all such customs’.

    “WHEREAS, There is a growing tendency in Protestant Churches, and to some extent in our own, to observe days and ceremonies, as Christmas and Easter, that are without divine authority; **we urge our people to abstain from all such customs** as are popish in their origin and injurious as lending sacredness to rites that come from paganism; that ministers keep before the minds of the people that only institutions that are Scriptural and of Divine appointment should be used in the worship of God” (Minutes of Synod (RPCNA) 1905, p. 130).

  20. Alvin June 26, 2013 at 10:41 pm #

    I like what you guys tend to be up too. This kind of clever work and reporting!
    Keep up the good works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll.

  21. Sherry December 6, 2015 at 1:15 pm #

    So, you don’t mind setting up Nimrod’s phallus symbol in your home? You don’t mind compromising with even the appearance of evil? You don’t mind if God sees your Wiccan Yuletide decor though it is an abomination to Him? I guess God’s anger at the Israelites golden calf made by Aaron and utterly destroyed by Moses to the point that God made the Israelites drink the water that had the ground up idol in it is of no effect after the cross work of Christ? I’d say you don’t believe Jesus to be the same yeterday, today and forever.

    And Paul was talking about Jewish feasts in Romans 14, not pagan ones of which the Christ Mass comes from. If anyone believes that Paul would say its OK to “christianize” pagan religious rituals so long as its done to honor Christ, is adding to God’s Word. It does not honor Christ but Nimrod, the false messiah. God sees it as such-a rose is still a rose no matter what name you give it.

    • Rudolph December 6, 2015 at 2:10 pm #

      Thank you for your keen and insightful comments! I did not realize you were such a well-read expert on Nimrod’s phallus.

      • Sherry December 6, 2015 at 7:29 pm #

        Mocking God?
        Deuteronomy 12:29-30 King James Version (KJV)

        29 When the Lord thy God shall cut off the nations from before thee, whither thou goest to possess them, and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their land;

        30 Take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after that they be destroyed from before thee; and that thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise.

        Sounds like He’s not wanting His children to do …ahem…likewise.

  22. Maria Tatham December 6, 2015 at 1:42 pm #

    Pastor LeFebvre,
    I’m in agreement with ensuring that private and public worship be congruent, both rejecting even the appearance of evil. How else will children learn without confusion?


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